Memorable actions become part of other people’s stories. His pioneering vision for Interface needed to permeate the culture. This page intentionally left blank Many of the “Aha!” moments created in simulations come when such a person suddenly realizes that he or she has been living a contradiction. 64 The Handbook of Experiential Learning This kind of preparation helps to generate higher levels of involvement and a higher quality of group discussion. Much the same process can be used later in the program with pairs returning to their ropes and standing at a point that represents their current progress toward (or beyond) their goals. The object was for each person to complete the required instructions and to pass the unit to the next person when told. Ask these questions of the people you supervise and you’ll become a mentor. a kereoke machine.” “Yes, and . I dress in khaki attire, complete with a regulation pith helmet, place a few stuffed parrots strategically about the room, and play jungle sounds in the background. Most of the examples in this chapter refer to the debriefing of training exercises, but they can be readily applied or adapted to other situations. As you complete your ACTION PLAN, try to be as specific as possible in stating your subject. Ledbetter worked for Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. at a wage rate much less than men doing the same job; the statute of limitations for filing a claim of discrimination expired by the time she learned of the unequal treatment. Junkyard Sports 115 Gathering Junk At the beginning, give each team pretty much the same collection of junk. Whether they do it consciously or unconsciously, people observe our actions and look for incongruence between our words and behaviors. Most of the time it is also fun to participate in a simulation, but not always. Hearing and reading about different values and beliefs may challenge us. The negotiations, if held, are to be loud enough for everyone in the room to hear. We believe experiential learning helps reach that goal,” says Patrick Vitale, manager of diversity and inclusion. Act as an unbiased, self-aware, gracious curator, and stories will usher in a cornucopia of delights and wisdom. I knew little about group process and leadership skills. A monument was erected in the Congressional Cemetery, where 17 of the workers were buried – 1864, Susan B. Anthony goes on trial in Canandaigua, N.Y., for casting her ballot in a federal election the previous November, in violation of existing statutes barring women from the vote – 1873   Mary Harris “Mother” Jones leads a rally in Philadelphia to focus public attention on children mutilated in the state’s textile mills. • Always keep in mind who the participants are. . Identify and list the key factors or criteria related to your instructional need. Moving always has more impact! Simulations. The law expands many of the anti-labor provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act, increasing union reporting requirements and restricting secondary boycotting and picketing – 1959, Some 5,000 female cotton workers in and around Pittsburgh, Pa., strike for a 10-hour day. 2. At a level below the “making the world a 148 The Handbook of Experiential Learning better place,” which motivates essentially all of us, there’re unique characteristics to the task that appeal to the individuals who’ve self-selected this role. How can we answer another question on African issues? In business, intercultural training is done more and more via a coach who works by phone as the need arises after the participant is already in the foreign country. It can be just a one shot “start and let it run,” like modeling a chemical reaction, or it might be something you can twist the dials on. I gather the group together to talk about the experience. Within 24 hours they won a wage increase and union recognition – 1937, What was to become a two-month strike by minor league umpires begins, largely over money: $5,500 to $15,000 for a season running 142 games. Investigators found that the company had been aware of dangers for years but had not acted on them – 2008, Vigilantes beat IWW organizers for exercising free-speech rights, San Diego – 1912, Wobbly activist Tom Mooney convicted in bombing frame-up orchestrated by Pinkerton Detective Agency. The marketing staff was shocked into action. Boyle had defeated Yablonski in the UMW election earlier in the year—an election marred by intimidation and vote fraud. The learners’ instructions are to begin with the role player sharing his or her perception of the role play. Apparently, technical training is one of those concepts that people have no difficulty in recognizing but find it almost impossible to define. “Sticky” Learning In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell (2000) uses the term “stickiness” to identify why some ideas, practices, and products capture the public’s imagination. So then the question becomes when we can use fixed path scenarios, such as branching scenarios, and when we have to move to rule-driven behavior. Action learning is particularly effective at this third level because it provides the opportunity for internal dissonance, while the problem and/or action may provide the external trigger. There are lots of outcomes we might care about. Hash deline northwest territories canada february monday to unauthorized access to seek to north america have a fair and protects. Even if someone does not share his or her story out loud, our story will set off a series of internal reflective events. Checklist for Selection of Problem/Project for Action Learning Groups • Who will choose the problems/projects—the organization or individual managers or the group members? Contact Information Active Training 303 Sayre Drive Princeton, NJ 08540 (609) 987–8157 [email protected] www.activetraining.com 13 14 The Handbook of Experiential Learning I N EVERY ORGANIZATION, there are attitudes and behaviors among leaders and employees that reduce its effectiveness. Her book, Training to Imagine: Practical Improvisational Theatre Techniques to Enhance Creativity, Teamwork, Leadership, and Learning, was published by Stylus Publishing in 2001 and is currently in its third printing. Ground: How did that last run feel? Cues to Consult Your GURU • When you find yourself making the same mistake over and over—you feel like the twin of that fly trapped on the screen porch • When you are stuck and don’t know what your next move should be—your mind keeps racing over the same small circle of thoughts • When emotions run high—anger, fear, and nervousness are especially good indicators • When you experience cognitive dissonance—a clash of cultures or values • When you experience a critical incident—any threshold or watershed situation • When you fail or succeed—both have equal potential for learning • When you’ve only completed a portion of the experiential learning cycle— wring the most out of every learning experience • When you want to learn more about something—follow your interests at your own pace • When you don’t have a teacher or coach at hand—you don’t need to wait for an expert • When you unexpectedly find yourself in a teaching role—you can become the expert that others are waiting for Get Creative Of course, if you want to get creative, you don’t have to confine yourself to the use of questions in GURU. However, avoid telling stories for selfaggrandizement. I do not refer to them as games, even though they are game-like for the following reasons: • The word “game” evokes feelings and expectations that I think make it difficult to design effective simulations. They can have a common goal (to win the meet or championship). The union turned back company demands for weakened work rules, mandatory overtime – 1979, Honda assembles the first-ever Japanese car manufactured in a U.S. plant, in Marysville, Ohio – 1982, Police arrest 150 in IWW free speech fight, Spokane, Wash. – 1909Railroad union leader & socialist Eugene V. Debs receives nearly a million votes for president while imprisoned for opposing World War I – 1920, President Reagan signs a bill designating a federal holiday honoring the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. to be observed on the third Monday of January – 1983, Carmen Fasanella retired after 68 years and 243 days of taxicab service in Princeton, N.J., earning himself a place in the Guinness Book of World Records. • Limit the number of participants in the exercise. The rocks and sand are what Sivasailam “Thiagi” Thiagarajan calls “metaphorical simulations”: low-fidelity activities in which one thing—rocks and sand in this case—represents another. Relationships Among Team Members “We need people to get to know each other better. Use People’s Stories to Build Role Plays on the Fly Are people sharing similar types of experiences? Get their input. These characteristics suggest that story lines for one audience will not work for others. Additional instruments are available separately. I must make an offer of my own in response to my partner’s. Feel better now? For sure, most of us worry about having enough money, and this highly readable book provides a lot of information and advice on the subject: how much we’ll need, how to make the most of what we’ve accumulated, how to accumulate more (even as we get close to retirement) and how to make it last. 370 The Handbook of Experiential Learning Enrollment Strategies Start with a simple, short exercise, something fun. Examples of excellent, appropriate, and inappropriate behaviors can be particularly effective when role playing soft skills such as communicating or reviewing performance. As you test and modify, you will watch your simulation come closer and closer to accomplishing its purpose. Denning notes that there must be a proper balance between strangeness and comprehensibility in order for an organizational story to be effective in accomplishing its goal. 4. On the other hand is in vivo research, where behavior is investigated in natural contexts in order to understand how dynamic and contextual factors influence and/or determine performance. The challenge is to maintain some interplay between experience and reflection throughout the debriefing, unless it was your intention to use the experience simply as an energizer to precede a discussion, rather than as a significant source of learning and development. Improving the Climate for Learning The facilitator should be able to provide optimal conditions for learning for each participant. The agreements consideration can be debriefed in an exercise for awareness purposes, but in order to make a real difference more is required. What can you do to help others fill the necessary roles to complete a team? While we have suggested that a digital storytelling model can be quite useful for certain types of experiential learning applications, a cautionary note is Theoretical Foundations of Experiential Learning 55 necessary. 1 (pp. Each of the men represented a local union of 40 members or fewer – 1896, More than 1,600 protesters staged a national hunger march on Washington, D.C., to present demands for unemployment insurance – 1931, United Hatters, Cap & Millinery Workers Int’l Union merges into Amalgamated Clothing & Textile Workers Union – 1982, Delegates to the founding convention of the National Nurses United (NNU) in Phoenix, Ariz., unanimously endorse the creation of the largest union and professional organization of registered nurses in U.S. history. This sequence can reinforce any previous ideas the trainer held about the inadequacies of role play. It is sort of silly to throw an imaginary ball around, and looking foolish rates as one of the top 160 The Handbook of Experiential Learning taboos in many business cultures. But once a model gets too big and cumbersome, it loses its value as a practical model, even though it may have the virtue of being more complete. For example, in a game called Go to Market, participants receive roles in a fictional company that is bringing a product to market and must figure out how to avoid certain management pitfalls in order to beat a competitor with a similar product to market. These questions are meant to be a starting point. • Adjust rapidly to changing interpersonal or environmental factors—the middle page of the instruction manual seems to be missing, it’s raining on your parade. • How can future action learning programs in the company be improved? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. What did various individuals do that helped the group solve the problem at hand? A revered game designer once said that 90 percent of the work in a game is tuning the experience. (1999). Regardless of the lack of skill required or of any rules of right and wrong, people find all sorts of ways to evaluate their input and feel not only foolish, but incompetent. This may be expressed as intolerance for mistakes, perfectionism, or an unwillingness to speak frankly. During the debriefing discussion, the facilitator should encourage expression of feelings from the participants. One volunteer is assigned the role of Dr. Roland and another the role of Dr. Jones. Journal of Management Development, 14(1), 53–66. Currently, at the MIT media lab, research is underway to enable computers to “read” human emotion. COMPETENCY MAP Interaction Process Selecting Indexing The Core Eliciting Listening Observing Modeling Reflecting Synthesizing Telling Here is a breakdown of the competency map. Facilitate discussion for as long as it is productive. bodiness is a combination of a physical structure (to the biological body) and an experiential structure, which corresponds to the living, moving, suffering, and enjoying body. SCENARIO CORE STRUCTURE. . The budget-management scores will reflect how effectively they used their learning budget. Engaging the Experiential Mind and the Rational Mind We do not have on-off switches for experiencing. They had been fired for getting married – 1986, Thirty-two thousand machinists begin what is to be a successful 69-day strike against the Boeing Co. Stories can be used as tools to encourage thinking. Improv can help us become more aware of the choices we make and expand our capacity to perform effectively. Types of Experiential Team Learning Events Experiential team learning events fall into one of four categories: • • • • Traditional events Outdoor events Real work events Other activities Let’s talk about each type briefly. Role play is particularly effective in training managers and supervisors to deal with unacceptable performance. What may not elevate it to the status of an experiential activity pertains to how it is experienced. Establish support systems that are commiserate with the level of intervention you will be conducting. Two dozen strikers were killed over the course of the strike – 1894, The 189-mile-long St. Lawrence Seaway opens, making the Great Lakes accessible to Atlantic shipping. Some activities take a long time, and the group is too tired to debrief afterward. What’s more, to maintain even these levels of service, the company required ad hoc solutions: employees worked overtime and temporary contractors were hired to assist. We conclude with a brief interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which narrative can be used as a tool for organizational or experiential learning in digitized environments. They organized after realizing that those railroaders working under their supervision already had the benefits of unionization and were paid more for working fewer hours – 1934, The Depression-era Public Works Administration agrees with New York City today to begin a huge slum clearance project covering 20 acres in Brooklyn, where low cost housing for 2,500 families will be completed. Often, these procedures are unappealing. I refer to the use of cute proper names, like the “Yell and Holler Telephone Company” or “Caught in the Act Security Services.” No matter how clever such names seem to designers at the time of creation, they undermine the authority and effectiveness of the simulation by signaling participants not to take it seriously. Simulation games are extremely useful tools for examining process-oriented issues, such as team building, leadership, communication, and decision making, because they focus on social or interpersonal skills and group dynamics. Base your skit on your own experiences. Less to do. . In response, Myers met with other African-American laborers to form what became the Colored National Labor Union. (1994). The participant is then given time to write actual responses to the items in her or his in-basket. You make yourself generally available to assist in any aspect of the design of the hole and the golf-like equipment so that teams can design it basically any old way they want. Build confidence early to gain acceptance. The suggestions in this chapter really only begin the steps of making role play more relevant and effective. Design Questions Now that we have talked about the types of events we can consider, let’s dive into some specific questions we should ask. It helps personalize the government’s youth development policies and frameworks. There should, however, be metrics set explicitly. Facilitators, meanwhile, seek to meld into the background and observe how participants manage both themselves and those around them—identifying coaching points throughout. The Employee Perspective For those under leadership’s sway in times of change, a different set of knowledge and skills is required for success. We can uncover patterns of relevance and encounter greater resonance between others’ experiences and our own by deliberately maintaining a diverse index. Stories are wonderful tools for thinking. Len confessed he had never told these stories to anyone else before, and prior to the workshop he would have never dreamed of sharing them in a work environment. He was president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and first Black on the AFL-CIO executive board, and a principal organizer of the 1963 March on Washington – 1979   May 17 Supreme Court outlaws segregation in public schools – 1954   Twelve Starbucks baristas in a midtown Manhattan store, declaring they couldn’t live on $7.75 an hour, signed cards demanding representation by the Industrial Workers of the World, or Wobblies – 2004   May 18 In what may have been baseball’s first labor strike, the Detroit Tigers refuse to play after team leader Ty Cobb is suspended: he went into the stands and beat a fan who had been heckling him. TABLE 10.1. Instead, the emphasis is on identifying problems, analyzing the situation, and inventing solutions. Yep, the upper part of your body is still uncomfortable, but your lower part is nice and comfortable. Unlike most development programs, which tend to favor one approach or another to learning, action learning bridges these schools and builds from their best ideas and practices. Frank Steunenberg, who had brutally suppressed the state’s miners, is killed by an assassin’s bomb. As mentioned earlier, the simulation is a stimulus and a tool for producing behavior and collecting observations for feedback. Sounds like qualities a manager would trade some of his or her stock options for to reside on the team. Hectic experiential activities may actually result in confusion and frustration rather than useful learning. Through their mentoring partnership, the mentee was able to collaborate on a project that rescued over $3 million in business that was in jeopardy. Leslie, J., & Van Velsor, E. (1996). “I want something beyond the ordinary, something that will test their leadership and stretch them. Beyond experience: The experiential approach to cross-cultural education. The following day the strikers’ wives and other family members join in the protest. The successful strike lasted 150 days, one of the longest in industry history – 1988, Musicians strike Broadway musicals and shows go dark when actors and stagehands honor picket lines. Help them understand how they can create work that matters. Charles O. Sherman, a former American Federation of Labor organizer, is elected president – 1905   Some 35,000 members of the Machinists union begin what is to become a 43-day strike that shuts down five major U.S. airlines, about three-fifths of domestic air traffic. Experiential Learning and Technical Training 255 Here are four additional principles that we learned from (and incorporated in) our successful technical training sessions: • Ensure a high degree of job relevance in all experiential activities. Goodbye, craftsmanship. Many wanted to use statements and push for their solutions. They are told to report back to their partners in the morning, and then we have a group discussion about what happened. Experiential Learning in Team Training 267 In general, if you have intact teams participating, you will be able to design in more components from the CARB model. Does your simulation or game need to have fancy components, glossy handouts, etc.? One of the difficulties of reflective practice is remembering to use it! The entire sponsorship and leadership development processes use the network issues at hand to help develop leaders. Whose Agenda? Aderholt is accidentally killed by one of his own officers. – Conversation with the Sidhe, David Spangler. She recently received the Optime Merens de Collegis Award from SIETAR USA. FIELDBOOK Designed to provide information and guidance to practitioners in the midst of action. “There were some scattered incidents and some minor violence,” Police Commissioner Howard Safir told the New York Post. The simulation itself provides the context for action. This typically occurs in the public sector, such as with a governmental agency, a public educational institution, and so forth. But there is more to their uneasiness. This process of forced reflection and subsequent internalization of the possible learning points makes experiential games worth the time, energy, and money expended by both the individual and the organization. .” It usually goes something like this: “Let’s have the party on a cruise ship.” “Yes, but . Empower a speaker Entertain 2. Teams can use their funds to purchase various learning materials and services. It was the deadliest wildfire involving firefighters in the U.S. in at least 30 years – 2013, Susan B. 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